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    • The existence of the Aboriginal Peoples Act 1954 (Act 134) under the Aboriginal Peoples Ordinance No. 3, 1954 which was amended in 1974, setting the terms and qualifications to state the Orang Asli community have been described in detail. Based on Section 3 in the Aboriginal Peoples Act 1954 (Act 134), the Orang Asli is defined as follows:

      1. Any of which the father is a member of the Orang Asli ethnic groups, who speaks the Orang Asli languages and follows the way of life of the Orang Asli and traditions of the Orang Asli beliefs and includes the descent through the man;
      2. Any person of any race were to be adopted as a child by the Orang Asli and raised as an Orang Asli, habitually speaks the languages of the Orang Asli, follows to the way of life of the Orang Asli and traditions of the Orang Asli and becomes a member of the Orang Asli community, or
      3. Children of any union between an Orang Asli woman and a man from another race, provided that the child habitually speaks the Orang Asli languages and beliefs of the Orang Asli and is still a member of an Orang Asli community.
        • The Negrito tribe is divided into 6 tribes, which is Kensiu, Kintak, Lanoh, Jahai, Mendriq and Bateq.

          The Kensiu people live in the suburbs in the Baling District, Kedah. A long time ago the Kensiu people liked to live a nomadic life finding a suitable place for food source. Ever since the government gave attention to the development of the people, the Kensiu people now have an opportunity to change their way of life to be on par with the general public. There is one Kensiu village in the district of Baling, Kedah which is the Lubuk Legong Village.

          At this time the Lubuk Legong Village has been equipped with electrical facilities, water supply and other infrastructures such as a Town Hall and a Children’s Counselling Centre. Their main revenue source is from Rubber plantation developed by RISDA in collaboration with the Department of Orang Asli Development. Until now, there are 39 families totalling to 204 people.

        • The Kintak people live in the suburbs of the Gerik district, Hulu Perak. A long time ago, the Kintak people liked to live a nomadic life finding a suitable place for food source. Ever since the Government gave attention to the development of the people, the Kintak people now have an opportunity to change their way of life to be on par with the general public. There is one Kintak Village consisting of 25 families totalling to 112 people.

        • The Lanoh people lived in the rural parts of the Hulu Perak district, Perak. A long time ago, the Lanoh people liked to live a nomadic life finding a suitable place for food source. Ever since the Government gave attention to provide harmony for the people, the Lanoh people now have an opportunity to change their way of life to be on par with the general public. There are 3 villages totalling to 359 people.

        • The Jahai Tribe is one of the Negrito Tribes that is the smallest tribe compared to the Senoi and Proto-Malay (Original Malay) tribes. They lived in Perak, especially in the Hulu Perak region which is in Banun, Tiang River and Temenggor Offshore Dams. In Kelantan, they were gathered in Rual and Jeli River in Hulu Kelantan.

          The Jahai people generally looked like the Ethiopian and Negro people in Africa, the Andaman Tribe and the Aeta in the Philippines.

          Most of them live in the estuary of the river and the lake shores. Their home is in the form of a bunch of bananas, built with bamboo and thatched sago and tepus leaves. The Jahai tribes like making their homes simple because of their nomadic way of life. They move from one place to another when there is death, unknown diseases, small disputes because of their need to find food and the increase in population.

          Now, their nomadic life has reduced because they have received aid from the government agencies.

        • The Mendriq people live in the rural areas of Kelantan. A long time ago, the Mendriq people liked to move from one place to another in search for a suitable place for food source. Ever since the government gave attention to the harmonious living of the people, the Mendriq people now have an opportunity to change their way of life to be on par with the general public. There is one Mendriq village in the district of Gua Musang consisting of 14 families totalling to 82 people.

        • The Bateq people lived in the northern rural areas of Pahang, the west of Terengganu and the south of Kelantan. A long time ago, the Bateq people liked to move around from one place to another in search for food. Ever since the government gave more attention to the harmonious living of the people, the Bateq people have an opportunity to change their way of life to be on par with the general public.

          Pahang has 7 villages, 5 villages in the Lipis district, 2 villages in the Jerantut village totalling to 100 families with 550 people. Kelantan has 4 villages in Pos Lebir with 84 families totalling to 413 people. In Terengganu there 12 families totalling to 41 people.

        • The Senoi people inhabited the slopes of Titiwangsa namely in the rural parts of Perak, Kelantan and Pahang. There are 6 tribes in the Senoi ethnic group which are Che Wong, Mahmeri, Jahut, Semoq Beri, Semai and Temiar

          The selection of housing by the Temiar Tribe is at a location determined by the headman. This is done by Berhalaq (spells) or dreams. Places that are to be occupied need to be away from burial grounds, free from hardwood existence such as the Merbau and etc. They also do not make settlements in marshy areas (water reservoirs) for fear of ghostly apparitions. That goes the same for areas with waterfalls and big rivers which are not suitable for the fear of the river princess/cascade that will cause disturbance to their homes. They build houses of wood (other than the hardwood species) together by mutual assistance. In the early stages of settlement, they built long houses. After a long time living in the long houses, they moved with their families and built their own homes. They support the family by farming, hunting and searching for forest plants.

        • The Semai Tribe lived scattered in the Titiwangsa Mountains area, covering the Centre of Perak, South of Perak and West of Pahang. The census in 1993 indicated their numbers with an increase by more than 42,000 people and is the Orang Asli tribe that has the largest in number. They live in communities. A village usually has between 60 – 300 people that are led by a headman or Batin, appointed from among influential people such as the handler, the medicine man and traditional leaders.

        • The Semoq Beri Tribe lived in the outskirts of Pahang and Terengganu. A long time ago the Semoq Beri people moved from one place to another finding a suitable place in search for food sources. Ever since the government gave attention to improving the economy of the people, the Semoq Beri people have begun to change their way of life to be on par with the general public.

          In Pahang there are 5 villages in Jerantut totalling to 95 families and 735 people. The Maran District has 5 villages that consist of 197 families as many as 935 people and the Kuantan district has 2 villages amounting to 67 families with 366 people. In Terengganu there is 1 village at Hulu Terengganu with the total of 42 families with 185 people. The Kemaman District has a total of 2 villages consisting of 69 families with 284 people.

        • The Jahut Tribe is situated in the Temerloh and Jerantut District in Pahang. In the Temerloh district they lived in the areas called the Kerdau-Paya Paleng, Paya Mengkuang, Kuala Krau – Penderas, Mendoi, Seboi, Pasu, Piau and Galong. In the Jerantut District they lived in the Kiol River and Kekwel (Kol). They support themselves by searching for rattan and resin to sell, aside from fishing, hunting and farming upland rice, corn and tuber.

        • Mah Meri means “Forest People (Orang Hutan)” while in terms the Mah Meri is called “scaly”. They are also known as seamen because they live near to the sea and work as fishermen. There is no exact historical evidence about their origins, but they are believed to have emigrated from the islands of south of Johor to the beaches of Selangor while running away from enemies. Now, the Mah Meri community have undergone a change in their way of thinking and development by mixing with other communities.

        • The Che Wong people lived in the outskirts of the Raub and Temerloh District, Pahang. A long time ago, the Che Wong people liked to move around to find a suitable place to look for food sources. Ever since the government gave attention to the harmonious living of the people, the Che Wong People have an opportunity to live on par with the general public. The Raub District has 4 villages and the Jerantut district has 1 village totalling the Che Wong people to 68 families with 417 people.

        • The Proto-Malay people lived neighbouring with the Malay people in Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka and Johor. Their customs and culture can be said to have certain similarities to the Malays. Most of their villages are now located in

          The Kuala people are believed to come from the Riau-Lingga archipelago and in areas that are close to the Sumatera beach, Indonesia. They are mostly living in the coastal rivers in the outskirt beaches of the south of Johor. Now the Kuala people live permanently in Batu Pahat district and in the Pontian district. There are 315 families of the Kuala people in the Batu Pahat district from 5 villages with a total of 1309 people and 4 villages with a total of 214 families with 1018 people in the Pontian district.

        • The Kanaq people are found in the outskirts of the Selangi village, Mawai district, Kota Tinggi, Johor and is one of the tribes with the smallest number of people which is 17 families with 65 people. Ever since the government gave attention to provide a harmonious life to the people, the Kanaq People live permanently in the Selangi village.

        • The Seletar people or “Sea Gypsies” are a group of coastal and marine adventurers who live in boats, on the island, coastal areas and the river estuary. Their main settlement is in the coastal of Southern Johor and north of Singapore.

          By tradition, they depend on sea produce. This situation leads to their itinerant life. However changes in the socio-economy has changed their way of life. Now, they are situated in a settlement that is organised and structured in the Coast of Southern Johor. They also catch fish using modern equipment. There are amongst them who work at industrial factories. They practise animism and there are amongst them that embrace Islamism.

        • The Jakun Tribe (Ulu People), from the Melayu Asli tribes (Proto Malay) that live in the south of the Peninsular originating from Yunan (Southern China). They still practise animism. Their lives are influenced by the environment such as mountains, hills, valleys, rivers, rocks, caves, etc. They believe that their village would be stricken by natural disasters if any of them violates the superstitious beliefs.

        • The Semelai People are one of the Orang Asli tribes that are from the Melayu Asli tribe (Proto Malay). The distribution of settlements of the Semelai Orang Asli can be found in Central Pahang such as the Bera Lake, Bera River, Teriang River, Paya Besar and Paya Badak areas as well as in the border of Pahang towards Negeri Sembilan such as in Serting River, Lui River and Ulu Muar. From the aspect of looks and physical form, the Orang Asli does not differ much from the Malay People.

        • The Temuan Orang Asli people are from the Melayu Asli group (Proto Malay). They live in Selangor, Melaka, Pahang, Muar District, Johor and Negeri Sembilan. The Temuan Tribe in Negeri Sembilan practise the Pepatih Tradition and are not much different from the Temuan Tribe traditions in other states.

    • This project began in 1980 (4th MP), Cabinet decision aimed at curbing the activities of subversive elements (communist) that influence the Orang Asli people in the rural areas. This plan involved a lot of reallocations of the Orang Asli to new locations from the original settlement. A total of 17 RPS locations which is 6 in Perak, 7 in Pahang, 3 in Kelantan and 1 in Johor (RPS Kudung was built by YPJC).

      Among the initiatives and development projects channelled through RPS are the preparation of homes to the program participants, infrastructure development and integrated programs of commercial crops such as palm oil and rubber. Through the commercial cultivation of participants, they not only receive dividends through farming produce but are also given the opportunity to be directly involved as farmers.

    • A total of 217 Orang Asli villages (12,264 KIR) have been involved in the implementation of the JAKOA PSK that was approved in 1999 (7th MP). The implementation is intended to upgrade the village infrastructure and utilities, basic needs and land development projects such as palm oil and rubber plantations to increase the income of the local residents.

      The PSK participants also receive the same incentives and facilities as the ones enjoyed by the RPS participants.

    • The Department also launched a New Village Plan project in a safe area at the borders of Thailand (KESBAN). The program is mainly to develop and care for the welfare of the Orang Asli community where their homes are situated in that area.

      The RKB participants also enjoy the same incentive and facilities as the RPS and PSK participants.

    • This project began since the year 1997. A total of 113 Orang Asli villages have been identified by the State Level Natural Disaster Technical Committee, covering the categories of high risk, moderate risk and low risk areas. The Orang Asli villages that are categorised as high risk are possibly the villages that experience flooding, landslide, wave and storm hits at the Johor, Pahang and Selangor coastal villages.

      The Department provides provisions for the purpose of transferring them to a new location, new sites and houses, including roads, drainage and others while the village categorised as moderate risk have provisions prepared to improve drainage, sewerage, widening/deepening of rivers, forts and etc.

    • As there are still many Orang Asli settlements that have been approved by the state government but have not been gazetted or need land perimeter surveying and engineering work for the federal development project, the JHEOA has allocated funds for the purpose. Through the facilities of issues related to the land acquisition, delineation and survey work can be carried out accordingly. Implementation of this project is subject to the jurisdiction of the land administrator and current regulations in force.

    • Through this program, focus is given to financing farm development projects. This project is implemented through RISDA and FELCRA to develop palm oil and rubber plantations. This project is the main activity of the Department in an effort to reduce the incidents of poverty among the Orang Asli community.

    • The Expansion Program (course) is aimed to provide training and exposure to the Orang Asli community that have potential in plantation and modern farming projects. Among the courses that are implemented are the palm oil plantation maintenance courses, hydroponic plantations, rubber cultivation methods, livestock courses and others.

    • Through this program apart from promoting Orang Asli products, various incentives are available to Orang Asli start-ups who have attended entrepreneurship courses organised by the Department. Among the incentives provided are business equipment assistance, input material assistance and etc. Various business fields that are explored by the Orang Asli such as grocery stores, restaurants, vehicle workshops, cyber cafes, construction field and many others.

    • The Department has also allocated for the construction of premises for retail space to the Orang Asli people who are involved in business. The construction of retail space for the participants are subjected to the fixed criteria in the Guidelines for Providing Assistance to Entrepreneurs and Companies/Industry within the Orang Asli Community. Among the types of premises built are craft shops, grocery shops, motorcycle workshops, restaurants and tailoring shops.

    • Ministry of Rural and Regional Development (KKLW) through JAKOA provided the Income Generation Program (PPP) to achieve the goal of reducing extreme poverty in line with the government’s wishes. Among the assistance provided through this program are agricultural machinery equipment, fisheries input materials, fishing equipment, vegetation projects, potato plantations, lime plantations, tilapia fish farming, village poultry livestock, goats, and etc. Applications for participation in this program can be applied through the Orang Asli Affairs Office in the respective district, and a list of qualified candidates and attendees will be forwarded to the Government secretariat level to acknowledge the assistance of the project.

    • Department of Orang Asli Development through the Social Development Program has provided housing facilities to the poor and extremely poor Orang Asli communities in the Peninsular Malaysia. The facilities are given to the Orang Asli Head of Household (KIR) that is eligible to receive assistance and the selection is based on the Housing Assistance Program (PBR) Guidelines SPKR in the span of the 9th MP (2006 – 2010). Housing assistance is not only to build three (3) roomed houses following the technical specifications of the Ministry of Rural and Regional Development, but also provides assistance for repairs to existing PBR homes.

    • The Department of Orang Asli Development through the Social Development Program also build and improve the infrastructure as well as public facilities in the Orang Asli village. Among the projects that are implemented are the distribution of water supply, building and upgrading of village road facilities, multipurpose halls, municipal halls, bridges and etc.


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Jabatan Kemajuan Orang Asli, Kerajaan Malaysia


  • Meningkatkan pendapatan masyarakat Orang Asli dan seterusnya mengeluarkan mereka dari garis kemiskinan
  • Memperluaskan skop liputan kemudahan prasarana dan  ameniti sosial ke semua perkampungan Orang Asli
  • Memperkasa masyarakat Orang Asli melalui program pembangunan modal insan yang komprehensif
  • Meningkatkan tahap kesihatan masyarakat Orang Asli ke arah sejahteraan hidup
  • Memulihara dan menegakkan Pengetahuan Tradisional serta warisan Orang Asli; dan
  • Meningkatkan tahap keberkesanan organisasi dengan mengamalkan dan membudayakan tadbir urus yang baik.

Jabatan Kemajuan Orang Asli
(Kementerian Pembangunan Luar Bandar)
Tkt. 3, 5, 20 & 20m, West Block,
Wisma Golden Eagle Realty,
142-c, Jalan Ampang,
50548 Kuala Lumpur.

Phone: 03-2161 0577
Fax: 03-2162 1470
Email: pro[at]jakoa[dot]gov[dot]my


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